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Glossary of HIV/AIDS Terms

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Bacterial Pneumonia
An inflammation of the lungs caused by bacterial infection.

Bacteriostatic
Capable of slowing the growth of bacteria.

Bactrim
Brand name of Trimethoprim/Sulphamethoxazole. See Trimethoprim/Sulphamethoxazole ; Cotrimoxazole .

B-Cell Lymphoma
See Lymphoma .

B Cells
See B Lymphocytes (B Cells) .

BCG
Bacille Calmette-Guérin--a TB vaccine.

bDNA Test
See Branched DNA Assay .

BID
Twice each day.

Bilirubin
A yellow pigment occurring in liver bile, blood, and urine. Its measurement can be used as an indication of the health of the liver. Bilirubin is the product of the breakdown of red blood cells. An elevated level of bilirubin in blood is an indication of liver disease or drug-induced liver impairment.

Biopsy
Surgical removal of a piece of tissue from a person for microscopic examination to make a diagnosis (e.g., to determine whether abnormal cells such as cancer cells are present).

Bisexual
Having sexual relations with both females and males.

BIW
Twice each week.

Blinded Study
A clinical research study in which participants are unaware as to whether they are receiving the experimental drug. See Double-Blind Study .

B Lymphocytes (B Cells)
One of the two major classes of lymphocytes (white blood cells); they are involved in the production of antibodies.

BMI
Body mass index (kilogramme/metre 2 )

BMS
See Breast Milk Substitute .

Body Fluids
Any fluid in the human body, such as blood, urine, saliva (spit), sputum, tears, semen, mother's milk, or vaginal secretions. Only blood, semen, mother's milk, and vaginal secretions have been linked directly to the transmission of HIV.

Body Surface Area (BSA)
A measure of the overall surface of a person calculated from height and weight. Body surface area is expressed in metres squared (m 2 ).

Booster
A second or later dose of a vaccine given to increase the immune response to the original dose.

Branched DNA Assay
(bDNA test) A test developed by Bayer for measuring the amount of HIV (as well as other viruses) in blood plasma. Test results are calibrated in numbers of virus particle equivalents per millilitre of plasma.

Breakthrough Infection
An infection caused by the infectious agent the substance is designed to protect against. As it pertains to a vaccine trial, the infection may be caused by exposure to the infectious agent, such as HIV, before the vaccine has taken effect, before all doses of the vaccine have been given, or because the vaccine is not effective.

Breast Abscess
This is a collection of pus in part of the breast. It results in painful swelling of the breast and usually requires a surgical incision for drainage.

Breast-feeding
Feeding a child breast milk (direct from the breast or expressed). Breast-feeding practices may be further described according to timing and frequency. See Exclusive Breast-feeding .

Breast Milk Substitute
Any food being marketed or otherwise represented as a partial or total replacement for breast milk, whether or not suitable for that purpose. A breast milk substitute can be commercial infant formula or home-modified animal milk.

Bronchoscopy
Examination of the bronchial (lung) passages through the tube of an endoscope (usually a curved flexible tube containing fibres that carry light down the tube and project an enlarged image up the tube to the viewer) that is inserted into the upper lungs.

Burkitt Lymphoma
A B-cell-type lymphoma.

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